While the secondary role of these categories does not prove that they were added at a later time to an original list containing only substance, quality, and motion, we should not rule out this possibility too quickly. That does not change the fact, however, that everyone believes in their existence. Here another consideration comes into play: It is a pot that will arise in a certain material, and not something else, because there is the prior absence of a pot in the material. Let us note here that it is often expressed in Buddhist texts from continental India from a certain period on. We are dealing, of course, with but a single moment, the final moment in a series of actions culminating in the arising of the pot.

The making of a pot does not take up an extended period, because this extended period belongs to something else, not to the pot. The author now engages in an extremely interesting hypothetical argument: It is therefore indispensable that there be two agents of motion if there are two motions. The third and fourth ways of seeing reality naturally belong to more or less advanced Buddhists on the path to liberation. They show that the principle is correct, that there is a direct connection between words and the things they denote. His grammar does not divide words into stems and suffixes. The author is evidently referring to the following type of chain:

One should note, however, that the passage immediately preceding it, which we looked at first, addresses basically the same problem.

A single modification epiaode those [atoms] is such a thing as the earth, a cow, a tree, a mountain. Therein lies its revolutionary aspect. The Vedic ideas we have just dealt with concerned the forms of words.

The birth of something non-existent is possible neither through illusion nor in reality. Essays in memory of Bimal K.


As we shall see, the correspondence principle bears a special relation to Buddhism, though it was never limited to it. Ideas and intuitions about the relationship between language and reality abounded in classical India, and a full understanding of all their aspects, all their expressions, and the networks of thought connecting them together is still a distant goal.

On the second, one will have to say that the dharmas, after not existing, exist: The question merits agnihotea in-depth study, which we cannot take up at this time.

Naagin S03

They show that the principle is correct, that there is a direct connection between words and the things they denote. Aynihotra aspects of the correspondence principle, such as the role of negation and the meaning of particles, have only just been broached. All of the elements—i. This does not mean that earlier thinkers were not convinced of a close connection unifying words and things.

The existent was born from this non-existent.

A HISTORY OF | Zulinar Asyifa –

For him, these sentences remind us that the actants agnihotrx a sentence can be episoode in the future, and that in this way there can be future causes of a present situation. Zur Gegenwart des Veda in der indischen Philosophie. It is therefore all the more surprising to find this NBh 2. According to the Buddhist scholastics, objects do not exist in reality, but owe their existence to language, to the words by which they are designated.

These first three categories—substance, quality, and motion—correspond to the three principal types of words in Sanskrit: The things that seemed obvious to them will not always coincide with what seems obvious to us. The fourth position is perhaps only a variant of the third.


But the belief to the contrary could have been responsible, among Indian thinkers, for more than one fundamental aspect of classical Indian thought.

These thinkers included, on the one hand, the non- Buddhists, but also those Buddhists who wished to maintain the reality of a world hidden behind the phenomenal world. The problems associated with the principle were taken up by Brahmanical thinkers, who situated them in relation to their own traditions.

We know nothing of the circumstances that would have made such a borrowing possible; our texts have nothing explicit to say on the subject.

Before studying their solutions to the problem of the arising of things, we shall examine some passages from the literature of Jainism that seem to address the same problem.

He, too, believes that the nature of things does not agree with language, but he does not therefore aynihotra that nothing exists. These texts include a few passages that seem to reveal an awareness of the problem of arising.

The Problem of Negation Confronted with vestiges of the problem in the literature of their schools, later thinkers endowed them with new meanings.

Rupali wants her share

If there existed anywhere something unarisen, it could arise. This observation is worthy of our attention.

The answer, though uncertain, might be yes. Among the three categories of substance, quality, and motion, substance is, in a certain sense, the most important.

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